Stanley, G.M.; Vaidhyanathan, R. A Generic Fault Propagation Modeling Approach To On-Line Diagnosis and Event Correlation. Submitted to 3rd IFAC Workshop on On-Line Fault Detection and Supervision in the Chemical Process Industries, Solaize, France. June 4-5, 1998.
In industrial environments it is common for industrial plant operators to do their jobs by silencing process alarms because they have become noise instead of helping to detect and diagnose abnormal situations. This is because it is very easy to configure alarms in modern electronic control systems, and operators are inundated with "alarms" that do not help them to perform their tasks, but that they hinder them. This is why international standards (ISA 18.2, EEMUA 191) seek to standardize the alarm systems of industrial processes, defining first what is an alarm and then defining criteria to rationalize the alarms that these systems deploy.
Agudelo, Carlos; Morant, Francisco; Quiles, Eduardo; Garcia, Emilio. Integration of techniques for early fault detection and diagnosis for improving process safety: Application to a Fluid Catalytic Cracking refinery Process. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries (2013).
The techniques for fault detection and diagnosis, measured with criteria that define early detection and diagnosis, discrimination between different faults, robustness to noise and uncertainty, identification of new faults, identification of multiple faults, ease of explanation of Faults and adaptability, suffer from one or more of these criteria, which necessitates a new approach to solve these shortcomings. ... an alternative is proposed that is the use of an Extended Fault Dictionary, that through a rule inference engine performs the integration of several techniques for the Early Fault Detection and Diagnosis.
Bakolas, Efstathios; & Saleh, Joseph. (2011). Augmenting defense-in-depth with the concepts of observability and diagnosability from Control Theory and Discrete Event Systems. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 96, 184–193
It is necessary to increase observability to avoid Process Safety events.